Tauhindauli Park and Trail Archaeological Report


1840 Churn Creek Road
Redding, California 96002

Trudy Vaughan
Coyote & Fox Enterprises
12272 Roca Lane
Redding, California 96003

March 2001


An archaeological reconnaissance was conducted in October/November 2000 on approximately ten acres along the Sacramento River west of Interstate 5 (I-5) in the city of Dunsmuir, Siskiyou County, California (Township 39 North, Range 4 West, Section 24) (Maps 1 and 2). A community park is being proposed in this area. This project constitutes an undertaking which could adversely affect cultural resources which might be located within the project area; and, thus, the archaeological survey was conducted in order to locate and evaluate any cultural resources within the project area, in compliance with the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

The archaeological work described in this report was completed under contract between Coyote & Fox Enterprises of Redding (CFE) and ENPLAN, the environmental consulting firm responsible for completing the project environmental documents for the Dunsmuir Garden Club (DGC). CFE is an archaeological consulting firm which has conducted work in northern California since 1983; and the fieldwork was completed by CFE archaeologists Trudy Vaughan and Polly Hamilton. All field work followed the guidelines of the State Historic Preservation Office and is in conformity with accepted professional standards.

The proposed community park and trail system is being developed by the DGC and is named the Tauhindauli Park and Trail. Tauhindauli is the traditional Wintu spelling of Towendolly, a Wintu family with strong ties in the area (see Ethnographic and Historical Background sections of this report). The DGC does not own the land for the proposed park, but has easements or landowner agreements to proceed with the proposed development. The landowners are the City of Dunsmuir, State of California Division of Highways, Union Pacific Railroad, Pacific Power & Light Company, and William and Patricia Rhinesmith. Principal funding for the project is being pro- vided by grants from the Cantara Trustee Council and the Upper Streams Clean Water Act program; and additional funding may be obtained through other grants and from "Friends of Tauhindauli Park and Trail," the local support group for the project.

DGC proposes to create a park and trail system that is ecologically viable, benefits local residents, is handicapped-accessible, provides historic restoration and interpretation, and promotes tourism. The three main components of the project are (1) ecological restoration of the site, (2) recreational facilities development, and (3) infrastructure improvements.

(1) Ecological restoration activities proposed for the project include restoration of the Sacramento River to its approximate historic topographic and floodplain conditions, and stream restoration to reroute the Upper Soda Spring outflow to its historic location through the meadow and to reroute the unnamed channel from the culvert west of I-5 through the restored floodplain. The banks of both streams will be vegetated with indigenous riparian species. Also, approximately three acres of meadow in the western portion of the site will be restored by removing exotic species such as Himalayan blackberry and revegetating with indigenous meadow species.

(2) Proposed recreational facilities include two picnic areas, a graveled boating/bus access area, portable chemical toilets, a concrete handicap-accessible fishing platform, and a paved multi-use trail running the length of the park, with connectors extending to the parking area, fishing platform, and cobble beach on the river.

(3) Infrastructure improvements consist of construction of a paved parking area and the widening and realigning of Upper Soda Springs Road. The northern extension of River Road will also be widened and realigned to improve its intersection with Upper Soda Springs Road.


The proposed park is located within the Upper Sacramento Canyon on a large primary terrace adjacent to the Sacramento River. Elevation within the project area ranges from approximately 2,290 feet to 2,340 feet above mean sea level. The site has approximately 1,600 feet of river frontage, and the river flows southeasterly along the west and southern boundaries of the project area. A flood control levee runs along a portion of the riverbank. The topography is primarily flat, with moderately steep sections along the banks of the river and to the north of Upper Soda Springs Road where the land rises steeply to commercial and residential buildings within the City of Dunsmuir along I-5.

The dominant vegetation types in the area are mixed conifer/oak woodland and riparian. The project area is fairly open, with most of the taller vegetation being concentrated in a narrow band along the river. This latter area consists of riparian species dominated by cottonwood, alder and willow. On the Rhinesmith property are some domestic plants including an orchard and a large magnolia tree planted circa 1900; and the meadow area between the Rhinesmiths and the power plant contains dense concentrations of Himalayan blackberry. The geology of the area is identified as Mesozoic ultrabasic intrusive rocks and Mesozoic basic intrusive rocks (Strand 1963); and soils are mapped by the United States Department of Agriculture/Soil Conservation Service as Stoner gravelly sandy loam, 2 to 15 percent slopes, and Neer gravelly sandy loam, 50 to 75 percent slopes.

Portions of the site have been developed with the Pacific Power & Light Company substation, the City of Dunsmuir's sewer pump station, the footings for the highway bridges, and the present Rhinesmith residence and its associated buildings and landscaping. Most of the area has been heavily disturbed in the past by construction of these facilities, as well as from the historic Upper Soda Springs Resort, and past and present recreational usage. Current uses, in addition to the above-mentioned facilities, include fishing, swimming, raft launching, and picnicking.


The following sources were consulted to obtain information concerning previously identified sites or other historic properties located within or adjacent to the study area: Northeast Center of the California Historical Resources Information System at California State University, Chico (NE/CHRIS); California Department of Transportation (CalTrans); the local Native American community; Siskiyou County Historical Society; and various individuals interested in the project and knowledgeable about the ethnography and history of the area.

The review of archaeological records conducted at NE/CHRIS involved a review of maps and records for archaeological sites in this portion of Siskiyou County and also included a review of the following documents: National Register of Historic Places - Listed Properties and Determined Eligible Properties (1988 - Computer Listings 1966 through 7/00 by National Park Service), the California Register of Historical Resources (2000), California Points of Historical Interest (1992), California Historical Landmarks (1996), and the NE/CHRIS Historic Property Data File for Siskiyou County.

Records indicate that a portion of downtown Dunsmuir is listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), but the project area had not been previously surveyed for cultural resources, and no sites had been previously recorded within the project area. The Upper Soda Springs Resort and the spring itself, which was used by native tribes, were, however, known unrecorded sites in the project area; and both prehistoric and historic sites have been recorded in similar environmental settings in the Sacramento River canyon. CalTrans provided a copy of the NRHP evaluation for the 1916 highway bridge (#2-02), the footings of which are within the project area (Snyder 1979). This bridge has been determined ineligible for inclusion on the NRHP.

Contact and consultation with the Wintu community relative to this project has been conducted by Albert DeGroft, a Dunsmuir resident, who has a close relationship with members of the Wintu Tribe and has attended some of their ceremonies. DeGroft has been in contact with Sandy Martin Gaspar, the great-granddaughter of Theodore Towendolly. Also, an e-mail was sent by this author to Mary Carpelan of the Shasta Nation asking for information relative to use of the spring by the Okwanuchu, but no response has been received to date.

Historical background information has been compiled by JoAnn Main, Dunsmuir resident and historian preparing an interpretive trail walk for the proposed park, and by Angel Gomez, McCloud family descendant. Gomez has an extensive collection of historic photographs of the Upper Soda Springs Resort and various family members. Many of the photos are available on his and DeGroft's websites (http://www.geocities.com/uppersodaphotos, http://www.snowcrest.net/rhs/tp.html) which Gomez (2000a) has compiled in a book. Gomez (2000b) has also written a family history; and he has reprinted a volume written by his grandmother Marcelle Sayler Masson in 1986, as well as compiling her diary from the years 1913 to 1920. Some articles on Upper Soda Springs Resort have been published by Siskiyou County Historical Society; and Bill and Pat Rhinesmith also have photographs, articles, and memorabilia associated with the resort. Additional historical background information on the power plant and associated features on the project parcel was obtained from John Devore, manager at Pacific Power & Light, Mt. Shasta.


The project area lies within territory claimed by both the Upper Sacramento band of the Wintu and the Okwanuchu band of the Shastan peoples. The Wintu inhabited the northern end of the Sacramento Valley, as well as the mountainous areas to the north and west. Whistler (1977) has suggested that the ancestral Wintu migrated to the Sacramento Valley area from southwestern Oregon, possibly via the Sacramento River canyon. The Shastan groups historically occupied territories in present day California and Oregon including almost all of Siskiyou County in California and Jackson and Klamath counties in Oregon. Very little is known about the specific history, culture, and language of the Okwanuchu since they are believed to have been completely exterminated as a result of Euroamerican expansion and/or in the 1872-1873 Modoc Wars.

Ethnographic accounts of Wintu culture come primarily from three references (DuBois 1935, Kroeber 1925, and LaPena 1978); and several references discuss the culture of the Shastan people (Curtis 1924, Dixon 1907, Holt 1946, Kroeber 1925, Silver 1978). Both groups were hunters and gatherers who practiced an annual subsistence round based on a series of seasonal moves designed to ensure their arrival at specific areas during the peak period of productivity for certain resources. Permanent winter villages were located along the major rivers and tributaries; and during the other seasons, they lived in temporary brush huts or bark houses as they moved to various resource locations.

Guilford-Kardell and Dotta (1980) presented data on Wintu villages collected by Jeremiah Curtin, a well-known linguist, from 1883 to 1889. From informants, Curtin collected the names of 239 villages, with 83 listed along the McCloud River circa 1809 to 1850. The lack of reported villages on the upper Sacramento River is due to the fact that most of the informants used by ethnographers resided in the McCloud River canyon following Euroamerican contact. Archaeological research projects, however, show significant aboriginal occupation of the Sacramento River Canyon. Major village sites occurred along the Sacramento and McCloud Rivers, and the people traveled between the two major drainages, gathering resources and hunting. The Girard ridge system east of Dunsmuir is a major fall migration route for deer from the McCloud-Mount Shasta area to lower elevations.

The most recent major archaeological excavations near the project area were conducted in the 1980s at sites on the Sacramento River south of Dunsmuir which were to be impacted by the relocation of I-5. The reports on the testing of seven sites (Raven et al. 1984) and data recovery at four sites (Basgall and Hildebrandt 1986) greatly expand the archaeological data base for this area.

Another ethnographic project (Theodoratus Cultural Research 1985) summarized the work of Bauman (1982), who had compiled the notes of John Peabody Harrington, an ethnographer who spoke with Native Americans in the area in the 1920s and 30s and recorded their words for places in the local area. This document noted several Wintu place names in the vicinity of Dunsmuir including Upper Soda Springs. This was identified by the informant as mem 'aqaston', although Masson (1966:5) gives this name as mem-okis-takki, meaning 'strong water place.' Other Wintu place names in the immediate area were Mount Bradley (wayeltcupus phuyuq), the flat where the main downtown portion of the Dunsmuir is located (sek'itiston'), and wayeltcupus which translates as 'where they wade the river.' This latter location is identified as the point under the present highway bridge within the project area, but the name is also reported to apply to the general Dunsmuir area.

No permanent villages have been reported in the immediate project area, but the native peoples undoubtedly gathered in this area, both for the benefits of the water and for salmon fishing. DeGroft (personal communication 2000) states that the spring is not considered a ceremonial gathering place, but that the Wintu would stop whenever it was convenient to collect the spring water, which they referred to as "stinky water.' The water is considered good for digestion, and when the water was collected, prayers were said, because the collector was taking something from the creator.

There are flat rocks along the Sacramento River in the project area which were identified by Grant Towendolly to the owners of the resort as salmon roasting rocks. These rocks are now underwater since the river was rechanneled in the 1930s, but the roasting process is described by Grant in one of the stories he related to Masson (1966).

Fire was made by twirling a stick of the buckeye between the palms of the hands with the point of the stick placed on dry fir or cedar bark. Dry leaves were placed on it also, and the resulting sparks would turn into flames. For roasting salmon, a hot fire was made in the center of a bed of small flat rocks which had been placed in an area the size of a large table top, or larger. The ashes were pushed aside and the salmon, cleaned and with heads and tails cut off, were placed side by side on the hot rocks, opened side down. Large saxifrage leaves from the river bank were placed over the salmon, then the hot ashes. Slabs of fir back were placed in readiness near by and the salmon, when sufficiently roasted, were taken out after first scraping aside the hot ashes and saxifrage, and were put on the smooth inner side of the bark and broken in pieces to hasten the cooling.

Grant said, 'The Indians knew just how hot to make this fire, and how long to keep it burning in order that the salmon would be roasted to perfection. It did not take very long.'

Grant Towendolly, whose Wintu name was Laktcharas Tauhindauli, was from the Trinity band of Wintu. In Wintu, tauhindauli means 'tying with the left hand.' Grant's father William, known as 'Old Bill,' left Trinity County in the early 1850s with his brother Chief Alexander to escape the Euroamerican miners and settlers who were moving in to that area. 'White man all time drink whisket (sic), swear damn!' (Masson 1966:5). They settled on the river at Upper Soda Springs, and, although Chief Alexander later moved to Lamoine, Bill and his Achumawi wife Jennie Stump remained and were living there in 1855 when the McClouds purchased the resort property (see Historical Background below). Bill worked for the McClouds for many years, and his sons, Theodore and Grant, were born at the springs. Grant was born in 1873, and he lived and worked at the Resort until after it closed in the early 1920s. 'Grant had been chosen by his father to become the next chieftain of the northern Wintu because he recognized in this son . . . the qualities that would be needed to withstand the rigorous training which was necessary' (Masson 1966:6). Grant, thus, became the recipient of many sacred Wintu stories and legends, passed down from his father and older relatives; and these stories resulted in the book A Bag of Bones, written by Marcelle Mason, as told to her by Grant.


The earliest recorded Euroamerican explorations of the upper Sacramento River canyon were in the early 1800s by fur trappers (Peterson 1965:13-15). In 1829, Alexander McLeod, a Hudson's Bay Company trapper, came down the Sacramento River exploring for fur trading possibilities. Peter Skene Ogden and his party followed a similar route in 1830 and 'explored the Sacramento River area thoroughly so that the Hudson's Bay Company might be ahead of any American trapping concerns which would have learned of the area's possibilities as a result of Smith's reports.' (Jedediah Smith had passed through southern Shasta County in 1828.) Other expeditions were led by John Work in 1832-1833 and Ewing Young, who drove 700 head of cattle from Monterey to Oregon in 1837. Young's route, the 'California to Oregon road,' through the Sacramento River canyon and around the west side of Mount Shasta was used annually by Hudson's Bay parties through the 1830s and 1840s.

The Gold Rush of the 1850s which had a major impact on western Shasta County and portions of Siskiyou County had relatively little effect on the canyon itself except for increased travel. Along this route, the major significant event occurred in the 1880s when the Central Pacific railroad was completed. Logging had already become the major industry in the canyon, but with the railroad, many more sawmills sprung up because of the easy access to wider markets; and tourism also developed along the Sacramento River with resorts for railroad travelers such as Upper Soda Springs.

When the railroad came through the vicinity of present-day Dunsmuir, the railroad station and post office were housed in a box car. The station was called Cedar Flat, with the town of Pusher nearby (pre-1886/1887). Alexander Dunsmuir, a coal baron from British Columbia, 'passed through and announced that if the future town were named for him, he would provide a city fountain.' The station moved from the Cedar Flat location to Pusher, and the original post office called Mannon was changed to Dunsmuir (Luecke 1982:23). The fountain was erected at the railroad station; and Dunsmuir has continued to be a major railroad depot.

As discussed and referenced above, Main, Gomez, Rhinesmith, and others have photographs and narratives relative to the history of the development of Upper Soda Springs Resort. Following is a summary of this information.

The first permanent Euroamerican settlers at the Upper Soda Springs site were Samuel and Harry Lockhart, twin brothers, who in 1852 established a simple inn consisting of a log cabin and a corral. Their business catered to the mule trains making the long trek up the canyon between the mining towns of Shasta and Yreka. At about this same time, the Tauhindauli clan of the Wintu tribe left their ancestral home on the Trinity River because of the miners, and William Tauhindauli settled at Upper Soda Springs.

Circa 1855, the Lockhart brother sold the Upper Soda Springs site to Ross and Mary Campbell McCloud who had previously operated an inn at Portuguese Flat, down river. Ross was also a surveyor and was later elected County Surveyor. He raised funds and did much of the surveying and construction oversight for an improved wagon road through the canyon that passed right by the resort. Ross and Mary added a two-story building of shakes and logs to the original log cabin; and an article dated September 24, 1857, from the Sacramento Union touted the resort and mentioned this new construction.

The place is fast becoming one of public resort and bids fair, at no distant day, to equal in attractions any of the watering places in the country. During the present summer, especially the sickly season, many of our townsmen, ourselves among the number, have tested the benefits of the water and the unrivaled mountain air, as it floats down, pure and uncontaminated, from the snowy summit of Mount Shasta, which overlooks the spot. The water of the springs is strongly impregnated with soda, iron, and sulphur; it is pleasant to the taste, and, by the addition of a little lemon or other syrup, makes a delicious beverage. The active medicinal properties of the water, combined with the pure mountain air, the excellent trout fishing in the Sacramento and the small streams putting into it in the neighborhood, and plenty of game in the mountains and hills, make the Soda Springs a very desirable resort during the summer season for invalids and persons of leisure who can afford time for a little healthful recreation. The property is owned by Ross McCloud, the pioneer of the Sacramento trail, who has spent the last six or seven years in opening this route to the public, but who is now about to reap the fruits of his praiseworthy efforts. He is now erecting a spacious new house on the premises, which, when completed, will furnish accommodations to visitors and travelers.

In 1864, Ross and Mary built a sturdy, long one-story building with porches that became the main part of the inn; and in 1874, a substantial two-story building was constructed on the site, directly across the road from the soda springs which gave the site its name. Circa 1880, a gazebo was built over the springs and a well head was constructed. This gazebo shows in some of the historic photographs of the spring. With the coming of the railroad in 1886, a bridge was built across the Sacramento River to connect the railroad with the resort.

Working with the railroad was an accountant named John Masson, a Scotsman. John and the McClouds' daughter Elda, who was born at the resort in 1860, fell in love and married in 1887. They had three children: James, born 1888; Richard, born 1889; and Charles, born 1891. The next twenty years or so were the height of the resort's success, as wealthy travelers, following the fashion of the Victorian era, arrived on the railroad to spend a month during the summer months 'taking the waters' and enjoying the mountain scenery and mountain air. Charles Masson and Grant Towendolly became best friends and enjoyed taking visitors hunting, fishing, and hiking.

One incident that gained notoriety for the resort was an attack by a 'panther' (mountain lion). The cat sprang on a young boy from behind a large oak tree on the hillside above the springs. The panther was driven off and was later tracked and shot. The boy survived, and the tree has been known as Panther Oak since that time. Various versions of this story have been related (Masson 1947:14), and there is some question as to whether an existing old oak above the spring is this tree or not.

John Masson died in 1911 as a result of injuries from a horse-and-buggy accident near the springs, and Elda and her family continued to operate the resort. In 1916, however, improvements to the State highway were completed including a new two-lane hardtop road and a new bridge spanning the Sacramento River. The increased use of automobiles for family travel on this new road meant that travelers were now easily speeding past Upper Soda Springs; and this new highway and the declining fashion of an extended summer vacation to 'take the waters,' caused the closure of Upper Soda Springs Resort in the early 1920s.

Elda continued living at the resort until her death in 1944. Her son Charles also remained and with his new bride, Marcelle Sayler Masson, lived on the hill above the springs on resort property where they raised their four children, including Angel Gomez' mother Valerie. Grant Towendolly and his wife Lillie moved south to Salt Creek in Shasta County.

Nellie Masson, the widow of Elda's son Richard, then lived at the resort site until she sold in 1963 to Harry and Patricia Chappell. This sale included the portion of the resort property which had contained most of the resort buildings; and, so, for the first time in 108 years, this historic portion of the resort property passed out of the hands of the relatives of Ross and Mary McCloud. Following Harry Chappell's death, Patricia married William Rhinesmith; and together they have continued to honor and enjoy the history of the resort.

In addition to the resort, there has been other historical development on the project parcel. Information from local residents conflicts as to precise dates, but the levee along the river was constructed circa 1920s/1930s when the Sacramento River was rechanneled by the Army Corps of Engineers. Bill Rhinesmith stated that about five years ago, this levee was raised approximately five feet. The history known to date for the power plant substation on the project parcel is limited, but John Devore, manager at Pacific Power & Light, Mt. Shasta, stated that the substation was first established by California and Oregon Power Company (COPCO). Circa 1915/1916, an extensive program of installing power poles in the area was undertaken, and he thinks this is the era during which a large crane and pole storage platform were installed at the site. The remains of these features are recorded as an historic site for this project. Pacficorp (Pacific Power & Light Company) acquired the power plant in the early 1960s.

Circa 1955, big slides on the highway during the winter months and many accidents on the highway in town, including a fatal accident involving pedestrian school children, prompted the citizens of Dunsmuir to agree to the seven-mile segment of new highway to bypass downtown as part of the new freeway. I-5 opened up north Dunsmuir to expansion, and this area was annexed into the city. The 1916 highway bridge became the southbound lanes for the new freeway, a second span was added next to it for the northbound lanes, and a third smaller span was built for the new frontage road to connect Florence Ave with the old highway or First Street north of the bridge. Also, because all the cross streets leading to Siskiyou Ave were severed by the freeway, a new overpass had to be built to provide access to that side of town.


A pedestrian survey was conducted by systematically walking across the project area. Ground visibility was generally poor, but all areas were inspected where mineral soil was exposed or where mineral soil could be exposed by scraping back the grass or other vegetation with a hoe. Ground visibility was hampered by the following factors: asphalt and gravel roads and turnouts, residential landscaping surrounding the Rhinesmith residence, dense blackberry patches and dense natural grasses and other species in the field west of the Rhinesmith's lawn, dense riparian species along the river bank, and dense vegetation on the slopes along the northern edge of the parcel. In most of these areas, the grass and other vegetation was too thick to allow for inspection of the ground; and, therefore, this survey is not considered to have been thorough enough to locate all potential cultural sites and features within the project area. The likelihood of there being additional historic features within the project area is considered high, and recommendations for further work are included in the following section of this report.

As a result of this rather limited survey, two historic archaeological sites were documented. The Archaeological Site Records are included as an appendix and show the site locations. This appendix also includes a copy of the NRHP evaluation for the 1916 highway bridge (#2-02).

(1) This site is the historic remains of Upper Soda Springs Resort, and features noted to date are (a) the developed spring box, (b) stone walls, (c) remains of the footbridge which crossed the river from the railroad tracks, (d) a garage/shed structure, and (e) a magnolia tree and fruit trees. The site covers an area measuring approximately 750' East/West by 350' North/South.

(2) 'Yellow Crane' is the name given to this historic site which documents a tall metal crane painted yellow and the remains of an associated wood platform beneath it. Research indicates this was used circa 1915-1930 for loading, unloading, and temporary storage of power poles.

In addition to these historic sites, other unrecorded historic features within the project area include the levee and a few isolated artifacts which were noted along the river: a mangled car part stuck in a tree; several strips of metal strapping, 2" wide and of unknown length; a brick; and two large formed pieces of concrete with rock inclusions. All of these latter items were, most likely, carried down river during heavy flows and are not considered directly related to the project parcel.


An archaeological survey was conducted on approximately eight acres in October/November 2000 for the proposed Tauhindauli Park and Trail, a community park being developed by the Dunsmuir Garden Club. Due to previous development and dense vegetation in portions of the project area, however, the ground surface in many areas could not be adequately inspected for the potential presence of cultural resources. This archaeological survey, therefore, is not considered sufficiently complete to meet the requirements of CEQA, and, as discussed in this report, there is a high probability that historic sites and features may be found in some areas. The most likely areas are those around Upper Soda Springs Resort: around the spring, in the area west of the lawn and orchard, under the developed residential buildings and landscaping on the Rhinesmith property, and along (and perhaps under) the roads. Other areas of the project parcel may also contain prehistoric or historic cultural resources, such as the paved and graveled area around the power plant.

Therefore, as project plans and development proceed, a professional archaeologist should be contacted when initial ground disturbance occurs in any portion of the project area to clear vegetation or to remove gravel and/or asphalt. This individual will monitor the ground disturbance to check for the presence of cultural resources. An addendum report with an archaeological coverage map will be completed when the archaeological survey is considered by a professional archaeologist to be sufficient to meet the requirements of CEQA. This will include the documentation of any new archaeological sites and/or isolated artifacts and cultural features, and an addendum to the Archaeological Site Record for Upper Soda Springs Resort, if additional artifacts and features are found in association with that site.

The archaeological survey of the project area to date resulted in the recordation of two historic sites: (1) Upper Soda Springs Resort and (2) Yellow Crane. The 1916 highway bridge, another historic site on the project parcel, had been previously recorded and determined ineligible for inclusion on the NRHP.

The Yellow Crane site is also considered ineligible to the NRHP. The documentation completed for this survey is believed to have recorded the significant field information relative to this site. The site lacks integrity, because most of the loading platform portion of the site is gone, nor does the site meet any of the four NRHP criteria for eligibility. Additional archaeological investigations at this site are not likely to yield information considered significant to the history of the area.

The site of Upper Soda Springs Resort, however, is considered by this author to be potentially eligible for inclusion on the NRHP. As discussed above, additional archaeological survey is needed to fully document the remains of this site, and when that is completed, a more detailed NRHP evaluation will be presented. Based on the findings to date, however, the site may be NRHP-eligible. Although extensive background research and documentation has been completed about the resort and its occupants, the field documentation of the various features has provided detail which is not available in the historical record. Whether the site retains sufficient integrity to meet NRHP guidelines might be questioned by the State Historic Preservation Office, and this issue will be discussed in the forthcoming addendum report; but the site appears to meet NRHP criteria A and D. Under criterion A, the resort's presence in this area made a significant contribution to the history of the local area, as well as the history of resorts of that era throughout the West. Under criterion C, the site has yielded and has the potential to yield significant information about the daily life and detailed operations of the resort to add to the history of the area.

A copy of this report with the Archaeological Site Records has been sent to NE/CHRIS to provide documentation that this area has received an archaeological reconnaissance.



Basgall, Mark E. And William R. Hildebrandt
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Gomez, Angel
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2000a Masson and McCloud Family Background. Ms. on file, Coyote & Fox Enterprises, Redding.

2000b Upper Soda Springs: A History in Photographs. Ms. on file, Coyote & Fox Enterprises, Redding.

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Masson, Marcelle
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Petersen, Edward
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Silver, Shirley
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Strand, Rudolph G.
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Theodoratus Cultural Research
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